Cider

Cider (/ˈsdər/ SY-dər), known as hard cider in North America, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

The juice of any variety of apple can be used to make cider, but cider apples are best. The addition of sugar or extra fruit before a second fermentation increases the alcoholic content of the resulting beverage.

Cider is popular in the United Kingdom, especially in the West Country, and widely available. The UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as its largest cider-producing companies. Cider is also popular in other European countries including Ireland, Portugal (mainly in Minho and Madeira), France (in particular Brittany and Normandy), and Spain (especially Asturias and the Basque Country). Central Europe also has it own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a particularly tart version known as Apfelwein.

Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders, and 3.5% to 12% in continental ciders. In UK law, it must contain at least 35% apple juice (fresh or from concentrate), although CAMRA says that "real cider" must be at least 90% fresh apple juice. In the US, there is a 50% minimum. In France, cider must be made solely from apples. In 2014, a study found that a pint of mass-market cider contained five teaspoons (20.5 g) of sugar, nearly as much as the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, and 5–10 times the amount of sugar in lager or ale.

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